The Art of the Taper

The Art of the Taper

Ready for action. Trackside at our Malaysian training base in Iskander Puteri. 

As athletes prepare for their key races, thoughts turn to tapering. What, when and how?

Tapers are an individual thing, however one can be guided by the general principle that triathlon of all distances is an aerobic sport. Even sprint distance racing is a minimum of one hour in duration.

If we consider an Olympic distance, also commonly known as ‘short course’ racing, we are looking at a race that takes around 2 hours for the pro’s to complete – a time duration which is far closer to the time required for elite marathon runners to finish their event. Hence, going the distance in triathlon is paramount, even in ‘sprint’ and ‘short course’ triathlon racing. To do this to the best of ones ability requires being strong the last third of the swim, the last third of the bike, and for the last third of the run. If your chosen race is Ironman, then in addition, how can you be strong for the last 3 hours of your day, where for many the metaphorical wheels fall off?

The simple fact is most triathletes taper too much. They worry about being super fresh for a race, when in fact ‘rested’ is fine.

Feeling super fresh at the race expo, the welcome banquet, and on race morning can lead one to a false sense of expectation, and reality. ‘I feel terrific, let me at it!  To only then find half way into the bike that the body says ‘I do not feel so fresh anymore!‘.

If you are an athlete who has a 7 – 14+ day taper leading into your race, this is an area you may want to examine in more detail. Rather than drastically reducing the volume from your program, we advise to reduce the intensity in the last 7 – 10 days leading into your race. Maintain some volume in your taper to keep your ‘aerobic engine’ topped up and ready for your big day.

Remember that fresh is only best if you are buying fruit.  Even meat is better slightly aged!

 

Robbie Haywood is Director of Coaching at Trisutto, with over 15 years experience. He spreads his time between his home on the Sunshine Coast, Australia and the Trisutto Headquarters in St Mortiz.

Join Robbie at one of the St Mortiz Camps in June and July and in Cyprus in May.

The Mental Game: It’s all in our head!

The Mental Game: It’s all in our head!

‘When the going gets tough, the tough get going’

Mental toughness is the ability to perform to the upper range of your individual talent and skill, regardless of competitive circumstances. We all know that long distance events especially require at least as much mental strength as physical preparation!

Being mentally tough means that no matter how brutal the circumstances are, whether it be your 13th hour during the Ironman race in temperatures well over 35 C, or your 20th rep of a 400m interval session, you’re able to stand the pain and suffering and perform to the best of your skills. The reward for toughness…, a good time, a personal best, a good place, maybe place on the podium of your age group category or even a win, or the satisfaction of ‘just’ finishing. Mental toughness may be the defining factor between finishing at the front of the pack and not finishing at all.

It’s not just the ability to keep moving but to keep doing it in a way that’s engaged and competitive in the environment you’re in, whether that’s competing against the clock or other human beings. It’s easy when you feel good physically. It’s when that physicality leaves you, it becomes the real task. What you’re physically capable of in an endurance environment is more determined by your mental strength than your physical capabilities. Your body can go beyond what your physical perceptions of tiredness or fatigue are. Your brain will be telling you ‘You are tired, stop.’ The mental limitations kick in before the physical limitations, it’s a simple protecting factor.


Photo credit: AsiaTri.com

Visualization is a part of the training that is important. You don’t have to do anything physically, you can be meditating or walking, anything where you’re in your mind, playing it out in advance. You can imagine the start, the course, the spectators, the finish line or those points that your body is saying ‘stop’ or that you’re suffering. You can mentally training yourself to push through those barriers.

You should also be prepared to overcome mechanical issues during the bike leg, a flat tire, loosing you nutrition, getting hit during the swim…the list is long, but the better you are prepared mentally to those, the better you will handle the real situation, if it occurs on race day.

If you spend too much time being down about it, it can throw your race completely. You have to keep yourself in a place that’s not a dark, panic one. It also comes back to core faith, for me it always was my family and the people that are closest to me, I raced also for them and gained strength and positivity, knowing they will wait at the finish line or follow me online for several hours back home.

Another thing is, of course is the training; in many ways harder than the event itself in terms of the hours you’re putting in and no one is cheering for you. You have to get comfortable in your pain cave. It’s a place of prolonged suffering. You know you’re going to experience it, but you have to find a way to know that it’s not going to last forever.

Try to focus your mind on the positive of completing. When you’re in immense physical pain, try to dull the pain as much as possible or the opposite, try to welcome to pain!

It’s up to you, remember, everyone is different! But once the pain enters your head, you start to legitimize ways of pulling out. There’s a difference between ‘bonking’ and hitting the wall mentally. When you really bonk physically (nutritional issues for example) in most situations there is less you can do about it, you will loose a lot of time or even not be able to finish. But how long you hit a wall mentally, depends on your own thoughts, mantras, to what your brain is saying to you and how you handle these.

There can be a bad 20 or 30 minutes, but you can still have a pretty awesome race.

Don’t feed into your fears or worries or concerns. You have to feed into your positive thoughts, those are the ones that are going to get you through. This can definitely be practiced during your very intense training sessions.

I know, it’s easier said than done, but

…believe!

Edith Niederfriniger is a Trisutto Coach based in Italy.
Join Edith at her Tuscany Training Camps in April.

Trisutto.com online triathlon coaches are available to help improve your performance here.

Project Ironman: The Fundamentals Part 2

Project Ironman: The Fundamentals Part 2

In part-one of my blog I covered the importance of having the right motivation and training plan to achieve your Ironman goals. These are just the first steps to success, you need to practice what you will do on race day, this not only includes the obvious, such as nutrition and pacing, but also race mindset.

Mindful Training
To achieve quality IM training with the limited time most Age Groupers have, you must invest yourself in every session, 100%. If you have a 30min easy spin scheduled as a recovery, engage yourself in the process mentally, physically and emotionally, channeling all your energy to accomplishing the aim – promoting restoration. If you get on the bike and just go through the motions, checking your e-mail, Twitter and FB feeds, then you are putting in the famous “garbage miles”. Likewise, if you do the same during rest intervals in an intensity session, you just compromised that “quality” – see my point reference the term…Use every training session to practice staying on task, focusing and concentrating without compromise. If you let the mind wander the body will follow. Ironman is an agonizingly long day. Make each moment count and you will save time and energy.

Recovery
While it is essential to listen to your body for signs and cues expressing fatigue it is also important to anticipate the need for scheduled rest. Remember that recovery is training. Consider it as a discipline. The body becomes stronger when allowed to absorb the preceding training. With the higher volume demand of IM training, especially as one approaches the race itself, recovery and regeneration become ever more important. Ignore it at your peril.

Work Your TOP
Suffering is part of IM. There is no hiding from it. Therefore as part of your physical and mental preparation you need to work your pain tolerance, or Threshold of Pain (TOP). This may include a once in a while session that takes you well outside your comfort zone. So don’t wait until race day to discover it. Practice it in training to help you develop coping mechanisms.

That also means being able to endure in solitude. While you may be “racing with 3,000 of your closest friends” the fact remains that IM is a lonely, solo effort. Those in particular who need the companionship of others to get their homework done should incorporate long solo HTFU (harden the ….. up)  sessions into their regime. The mental resilience and tenacity gained will help through those dark moments that will inevitably taunt you to quit or feel sorry for yourself. Likewise it will enhance your judgment and decision making when under pressure and fatigued.

Pacing
This is probably the biggest downfall for some of the most talented athletes. Correct pacing in an IM is key. Rehearse in training what you will execute on race day. Then on race day, have the discipline to stick to your pacing.

Cramping is a common phenomenon in IM racing, and is always addressed under nutrition. I chose to tackle it here as it is more the result of improper pacing than dehydration and electrolyte deficiency. More often than not participants get caught up in the electrifying ambiance of race day and lose all self-discipline and sense of judgement, hammering out of the gates, pushing their muscles to work at an intensity and duration they are unaccustomed to. The muscles become exceedingly stressed subverting the neuromuscular pathways and causing spasmodic contractions. Bottom line – rehearse your pacing, groove it, execute it, stick with it.

Nutrition
Nutrition (including hydration) is the fourth discipline of IM. It can be quite controversial and perplexing given the regular bombardment of contradictory information from the “latest research”. For this blog’s purpose I will only refer to nutrition preparation for IM competition vice daily dietary recommendations.

Like swimming, biking and running, you need to train it. Train your gut to ingest the quantities you need, and do so often under race pace stress, not just during a comfortable rest interval. My best advice is to take in calories frequently, rather than gulping or chewing bigger portions periodically.

One thing to be attentive to is the difference between ingestion (the quantity taken in) and rate of absorption (what is actually be taken up by your digestive system). The two are not the same and what is recommended in mainstream literature may not be suitable to you. There is no magic formula, only your individual requirements. So adhere to these two simple principles – know what you need per hour based on what you can tolerate and absorb, and ingest those calories in forms that suit your palate, and satisfy you physically and psychologically. There is no right or wrong only what works for you.

Know ahead of time what will be supplied on race course and try it. If you are accustomed to Gatorade Endurance and will race in Europe where say High5 is used or Australia where Endura is used, then sample some before to ensure that your stomach can handle the formulation. If not, then you know you need to plan around that limitation. If yes, then train with it so you have the flexibility to safely supplement on course when needed.

In training practice your nutrition and hydration timing. Rehearse it. Drill it in. Make it habitual. But be flexible. Practice and assess your nutritional decisions in training (based on the road profile ahead and environmental conditions) to minimize hesitation on race day.

If you plan to race with caffeine, train with it as well. Not every session, but periodically when doing race specific (long) sessions. Caffeine can also lead to cramping indirectly. Caffeine tempers our sense of pain and stimulates us to perform. Often caffeine is only used in races, and in higher quantities than accustomed to, to get that extra turbo charge. Add this to an already over-excited environment and the risk of pushing one’s muscles beyond what they are able to handle goes up significantly.

Fuel for performance. We have control over our nutrition (and pacing). Therefore there should be no (controllable reason) that bonking occurs, in training or racing. Plan your nutrition to optimize each training session especially on multi-session days. Avoid looking at each session in isolation. Always assess what came before, the demands and aim of the actual session and, what is to come after and when. This way you remain proactive in fueling and replenishing appropriately. This habit will preserve you on IM day because when you start reacting to nutritional needs you are already behind the 8-ball.

There is a lot involved preparing for an IM. But before you focus and obsess on the sexy marginal gains promised by the latest gadget, widget or elixir, follow these fundamental principles as the underlying foundation to your Ironman training and ultimately your race day success.

Ed Rechnitzer has over 28 years experience in triathlon and has completed multiple Ironman events, including Kona. He is a Trisutto Coach based in Calgary.

Join Ed at one of his three Mont Tremblant Camps in July.

 

Trisutto.com online triathlon coaches are available to help improve your performance here.

Project Ironman: The Fundamentals Part 1

Project Ironman: The Fundamentals Part 1

Every year a plethora of articles are published in various forums on how to best prepare for an Ironman. This two-part blog is not about the quickest way to your fastest Ironman, or the secret base workouts of our greatest champions. It is about the fundamentals that you should consider and address to set you up for success.

Motivation
It all starts here. This is the anchor of your resolve, the guiding beacon on your journey and the fuel that keeps the drive alive when the going gets tough, in training or on race day. You need to be both strong physically and tenacious mentally to put yourself through the Ironman ordeal, whether that’s an Age Group finisher or a podium/Kona-qualifier contender. Your reason needs to come from within, deep. It must be intrinsically generated not extrinsically fostered. Your purpose matters. Find it. Lock onto it.

The 4 D’s
To support and sustain your motivation you need:

  • Discipline – Specifically, self-discipline. This attribute enables you to stay the course, to do the homework when the body and mind are yearning for the easy way out, and to maintain control and order in adverse conditions.
  • Dedication – Which is your unrelenting commitment to achieve your goal, whatever and how ever long it takes. It is only your devotion that will enable you to reach your objective. Make lifestyle choices rather than sacrifices. Choose to change, to abstain, to do, to avoid, to act, to support your project (positive), rather than looking at it from the perspective of giving up something (negative). This will make the experience a lot more rewarding in the end.
  • Determination – That is the expression of your conviction that you can succeed, that you will succeed. It represents the mindset that never gives up.
  • Detail – In your plan. See your ironman as a project with multiple supporting tasks, not just swim, bike, run training. Assess and prioritize enablers (i.e. scheduling, family, nutrition, massage etc.) that will optimize your preparation. And when it comes to training, leave no stone unturned. Prepare and rehearse for the specific race course demands as best you can.

Planning
I am always taken aback when I hear people tell me they “hope” to achieve this at IM, or “hope” that this will happen. Hope is not a viable course of action. Only one thing will lead you to success – hard work. And I’m afraid there is no App for that.

To make good on this hard work you need a plan to guide you. Know this – if you fail to plan, you plan to fail. Period. So, on your own, or with your coach, invest the time to chart a course to your objective. It need not be elaborate or complex. A penciled sketch will do. Just have something that you can refer to.

Always plan backwards and execute forwards. Work back from your IM to where you are now on the calendar to highlight the time you have. Then determine what needs to be done and how and where it will fit. This said, accept that no plan survives first contact so you must be flexible and ready to change as life intervenes (i.e. illness, work, family etc.). As long as you have a plan you know where you are headed and you are in better position to adjust and adapt should things go sideways.

Periodization
This is simply the methodical and thoughtful manipulation of volume/intensity/frequency of training in a manner best suited to (you) the athlete to achieve optimal performance on race day. Without tagging periodization with a name, or selecting a particular model off the shelf, develop a plan around your circumstances, rather than trying to squeeze yourself into a set construct. What is important is that you consider and respect the fundamental principles of progressive overload, specificity, frequency and recovery. Underlying these are of course volume and intensity.

Volume and Intensity
First off I will acknowledge my unorthodox position with respect to “quality” as it refers to intensity. It has become the most misleading term the world over. Sorry but it has. Intensity does not equal quality! Every workout, every session, short or long, high or low intensity is quality if it is appropriately placed in an athlete’s training plan and makes sense in their context. Volume, especially in the context of IM, has a quality of its own. Quality is what you do and how you do it within the volume. Intensity is the effort level applied to your training.

The fundamental problem with interchanging quality for intensity is that it infers volume is of lesser importance, and worse seduces people into believing that intensity is a (shortcut) substitute for volume. It is not. When one assesses the durability requirement for IM, physical and mental, duration has an important role to play.

While IM is an endurance event it is still a contest of speed (Finish Time=Distance/Speed). If it were an endurance contest alone then everyone crossing the finish line by cut-off time should stand on the first place podium. Sustainable race pace is key to success. Therefore, volume must be used to develop the endurance and stamina to sustain your race pace intensity over the three distances, while race pace can be developed from the get go, gradually extending the duration that it can be maintained. This means first working the race pace in short duration’s with lots of rest, then increasing the total time spent at race pace followed by cutting the recovery time to increase sustainability under fatigue.

 

Ed Rechnitzer has over 28 years experience in triathlon and has completed multiple Ironman events, including Kona. He is a Trisutto Coach based in Calgary.

Join Ed at one of his three Mont Tremblant Camps in July.

 

Trisutto.com online triathlon coaches are available to help improve your performance here.

Total Body Force Swimming – Part 3  Cadence for Women

Total Body Force Swimming – Part 3 Cadence for Women

Our recent blogs and discussions about Total Body Force (TBF) swim techniques have highlighted the need to find a stroke that we can replicate over and over, that withstands fatigue so we don’t ‘fade’ in the second half of the race day swim; a stroke that enables rhythm and balance and which is determined on an individual basis.

Whilst we do take a very individual approach to defining a swim stroke, those who have attended our Trisutto Camps would be aware that generally we tend to encourage a different level of cadence between women and men. We have added a Part 3 to our TBF Swim Series to specifically highlight the need for a fast cadence for our female swimmers. We also introduce an alternative TBF swim stroke exclusively for women.

 
Men
Most men tend to already have sufficient power, however my most common observation is that they are applying it in the wrong places. We see so many guys thrashing through the ‘Place’ and ‘Press’ phases of their swim stroke that by the time they reach the ‘Push’ there is no acceleration at all. For many it is often just an adjustment in timing that can lead to very quick improvements. We use our TBF swim methodology to adjust the swim stroke, and more often than not, the timing of the stroke falls into place.

 
Women
When discussing female swimming we differentiate into three categories:

  1. Those that have come from a swim background; we try to change as little as possible. Most trained swimmers will have executed their technique over many years. The motor patterns are well and truely laid and digging them up to follow the Trisutto TBF technique is not advised.
  2. Those that have come from a swim background but use an extensive six beat or leg dominated kick. Again we don’t change without a thorough studying time to try to assert  a) if the stroke they have is natural to them, or b) if their stroke is causing them problems over longer distance swimming (i.e. those coming from a short swim background can really struggle over longer distances, not because of cardio capacity or lack of it but because their stroke is far too energy sapping to replicate over the longer distances).
  3. Non swimmers. By this we mean athletes who have started to swim seriously since taking up triathlon. Our next chapter is devoted to these athletes who struggle to attain the desired biomechanics of conventional swim dogma.

 
Non swimming background
Our approach for women coming from a non-swim background is a little different to the men, in that we generally encourage a high frequency of stroke. Whilst the majority of women have less muscle mass then men, more significant is that they have a huge deficit in testosterone. Therefore a lesser likelihood that they will be able to hold the power required for a longer stroke when compared to their male counterparts. However women can compensate for this with a faster cadence. Just like pushing gears in cycling, if we use a smaller gear with a higher cadence and less amount of power, we can still maintain a fast overall pace.

 

Paddle Boarders competing in Surf Life Saving Events; my inspiration for developing a suitable stroke for female athletes in Triathlon. Whilst in a flat position lying on the board on their bellies, the athletes are able to maintain a terrific arm turnover with a flatter stroke, without an over emphasis on power. I want to emphasize how short the strokes are but because of the fluid dynamics of the board, how fast these athletes are traveling. Also look at how wide their arms are during the stroke, supporting our TBF methodology that getting your arms under your body or down the centre line is not a fundamental to swimming fast. Video Footage: Round 1 NutriGrain IronWoman Series

 
Using TBF technique with butterfly hip motion
After observing the positions, cadence and fantastic speeds of Surf Lifesaving paddle boarders through the water, it seemed plausible to me that these techniques could be transferred to freestyle swimming also. A very fast arm turnover that can be repeated continuously over distance.

Combining the paddle boarders arm motion with a a butterfly hip movement, is a combination I have experimented with extensively and have found these two together can in fact provide a more natural and effective freestyle stroke for many women. We still apply TBF, generating force from the hips, but instead of turning the hips sideways, we encourage an ‘up and down’ dolphin’ing / movement, vertical to the bottom of the pool. Thus is very similar to the movement of the hips seen in the butterfly swim stroke.

This stroke also allows us to focus on the finish and the explosive acceleration at the end of the stroke, rather than the extension at the front. The stroke is thus short at the front and long at the back, using the vertical motion of the hips and a higher stroke rate to create the power.

To be able to accomplish this we advocate less body roll for the women than men. To maintain a higher cadence a flatter body position is required with less overall roll. The amount of roll naturally occurring when turning to breath is sufficient with this stroke technique.

 

The male paddle boarders demonstrating the same concept; fantastic speed generated by fast arm turnover and a wide stoke. Video Footage: 2003 Australia Ironman Final

 
Distance per stroke
Focusing on a maximum distance per stroke is a notion held by many age group athletes which is a great inhibitor to their progress. The general impression that less strokes is better is a complete misnomer when training for triathlon swimming. Remember the swim leg of a triathlon takes place in open, moving water with currents and swells, while also fighting for space with other competitors. A long slow stroke is counterproductive to swimming in these conditions. The stroke needs to be suited to the environment you will compete in.

 
Gender, physique, natural body position, swim background, race distance and even mentality of the athlete are all important considerations when advising on best stroke for each individual athlete. With so many of us from a non-swimming background there is also one other important consideration – to enjoy, or learn to enjoy swimming! Technique, workout structure and correct use of ‘toys’ all contribute to improving, as well as to enjoyment – and if you enjoy your training, then you will enjoy the results too!

 
If you would like to experience TBF swim training and advice on the best stroke for you, we offer this at our Trisutto camps, including with Brett Sutton 1-6 May in Mallorca, and 8-13 May in Cyprus. 

The Magic Comes From Within

The Magic Comes From Within

The gracious Ed Whitlock broke another World Record when 85 years old. Photo Credit: Todd Fraser/Canada Running Series

Last weeks news of the passing of Canadian running legend Ed Whitlock, prompted the following reflection – Robbie.

In 2003 at age 72 Ed Whitlock become the first person 70 years or older to run sub 3 hours at the marathon, with a 2:59:10 at the Toronto Waterfront Marathon. At 73, he lowered that to 2:54, and last October, at age 85, he ran 3:56:33 at the Toronto Marathon, becoming the first in person over 85 years old to break 4:00 and taking 28 minutes off the previous 85+ record.

How was Ed able to achieve such amazing feats?  As with champions from all walks of life, The Magic Comes From Within

Whitlock did practically all of his training in 5-minute perimeter loops of the Milton Evergreeen Cemetery, a short jog from his house. When asked why he chose that venue for training runs of up to four hours, Whitlock replied, “I would prefer not to run around in small circles day after day, but overall, taking everything into account, it sort of suits me. If it’s windy, I don’t have to face the wind for too long at any one time. If something happens, I can be home immediately. There’s nothing perfect in this world.”

 
Whitlock also defied convention in his approach to non-running activities, in that he did no stretching, strength training, or cross training. When he was injured, he simply stopped running until he felt able to resume his high-volume training. He followed no special diet, other than to eat enough to keep his weight up. Whitlock mostly ran in old shoes he’d won at races or had otherwise received; he said the racing flats he wore to break 4:00 at Toronto were 15 years old.

 
Whitlock said, “I realized in my late 60s that this silly objective of being the first person over 70 to get under 3:00 in the marathon was just sitting there waiting for someone. I thought it should have been done long before, but there it was, so I thought I should make an effort at it.”  Runners World

Incredible feats are not the sole (or soul!) domain of sports. When trekking in the Himalayas, visitors are sure to experience local sherpas / porters carrying towering loads on their backs, their packs sometimes heavier than their bodies. A 150-plus pound pack on a 125-pound man, and the sherpas carry their packs up and down mountains, day after day, year after year.



How do they manage such feats of strength and endurance? Lengthy scientific experiments and study offer little light, and can only conclude:

What these sherpas are doing, from our perspective, is sort of unimaginable, even for athletes. In Western society, we no longer have a real handle on what humans can do physically because we’re so far removed from this level of daily work that we physically can’t do it anymore. They simply go. And they keep going.  npr.org

Returning to the sporting arena, two coaches of champion runners that greatly influenced training methods, are Arthur Lydiard of New Zealand and Percy Cerutty or Australia.

‘It’s just a matter of understanding what’s necessary and to discipline yourself to do it.There is no need for a separate mental training program of affirmation and visualisation if it is inbuilt into the training program. There is nothing more confidence-building than the knowing of thorough preparation.’  – Arthur Lydiard


(left to right) Peter Snell, Murray Halberg, Barry Magee and Alan McKight training on the 22-mile Waiatarua Loop in NZ.

Likewise Percy Cerutty, who’s ‘Stotan’ philosophy sits at the core of his coaching philosophy –

‘I do not seek champions. I cleave to ‘triers’ who are sincere. The ‘lessor’ trying to become ‘more’ appeals to me more than the ‘arrived’ wishing to go further. It is the ‘overcoming’, not the ‘success of’ that is important. It is not the winning, it is the journey. It is not the ‘doing’ but the ‘trying’. All the world admires a ‘trier’ – and that is something we can all exceed at – to be ‘tops’ in being a sincere and punishing ‘trier’.

 
One must have tenacity, loyalty, be able to withstand physical hardship, know oneself, remain un-influenced by trends and dogma, and have informed intelligence.

 
To live this way of life is hard. It is not for weaklings. It is the way that is travelled by all the truly great ones. It requires strenuous effort of body and mind.  Fail, is not in my dictionary. I’ve got a good dictionary and the words ‘fail’ and ‘failure’ have been ruled out for years. I don’t know what people are talking about who use that word. All I do know is temporary non-success, even if I’ve got to wait another 20 years for what I’m after, and I try to put that into people, no matter what their object in life.’ – Percy Cerutty


Percy Cerutty – Maker of Champions!

Returning to Ed Whitlock, one additional characteristic is also to be observed. Ed was renown for his modesty and simplicity.

“I never know what to say to people who say, ‘You’re an inspiration.’ What do you say to that? I’m not an inspiring person at all.”

Truly an example of The Magic Comes From Within

 
References
Athletics – How To Become a Champion; by Percy Wells Cerutty
Why Die? The extraordinary Percy Cerutty, maker of champions; by Graeme Sims

 

 

Robbie Haywood is Director of Coaching at Trisutto.com.

Inquiries about Trisutto Coaching Certification can be made to: robbie@trisutto.com